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Flora and Fauna

Nepal is naturally embodied with varieties natural plants and other vegetation. There are more than 6500 known species of trees, shrubs and flowers found in Nepal. Nepal is also a habitat for numerous species of wildlife including one horned Rhino. Many national parks and conservation areas are constructed for the preservation and protection of plants and animals in Nepal.

Nepals flora and fauna can be classified as:

Tropical Deciduous Monsoon Forest:
This includes the Terai plains and the broad flat valleys found between the hill ranges. The dominant plant/tree species of this region are Sal (Shorea Robusta), Asna (Terminalia Termentosa) and Semal (Bombax Malabricum). High elephant grass covers most of the forest and valleys. Most part of this area is now destroyed for settlement purpose. This tropical zone is rich area for wildlife. It is a habitat for numerous wild animals found in Nepal. Gaurs, Wild buffalo, deer, leopard, tiger, rhino, etc. are found in this region. Crocodile and dolphins can be found in the rivers. Different species of birds are found in this region.

Subtropical mixed Evergreen forest:
The subtropical region includes the Mahabharat Lekh which rises above the height of 2400m including the outer wall of Himalayan range. The big rivers of Nepal like Karnali and Narayani flow through this region to the plain terai belt. Different species of Oak and rhododendron are found in this region. Many other vegetation bloom in this region during different seasons. Animals like wild boar, barking deer, bear etc. are found in this region. Different bird species are found in this zone.

Temperate Evergreen Forest:
Plant species like Oaks are Pines are dominant in this zone. Rhododendron, bamboo, and maples are commonly found at bout 3600m-3900m. Many seasonal plants and flowers bloom in this region. The wildlife of this region includes the Himalayan bear, Serow, red panda, barking deer, wild boar etc. Himalayan thar are sometime spotted in this region. Different bird species including Danphe (national bird of Nepal) can be found in this region.

Subalpine and Alpine Zone:
Different species of Rhododendrons, juniper and other vegetation are found in this zone. Varieties of short grasses, sedge mosses and alpine plants are seen blooming in areas where there is sufficient soil for their growth. This zone is rather cold and snowfall during the winter season is quite common. Faunas found in this zone includes Himalayan marmot, mouse hare, thar, musk deer, snow leopard etc. are found in this region. Wild yaks and Tibetan sheep can be sighted in some part of this region. The birds like snowcock, lammergeyer, snow partridge, chough and bunting etc. are found in this region.

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